一天一篇英语,申硕难不倒你(28)

发布时间:2015-05-14 13:58

摘要: 毫无疑问,现在的英语已经是世界上使用国家最多的语言,有些国家并没有把英语作为母语,但未来会如何发展呢?英语必须以牺牲其他语言为代价来发展吗?

本篇同等学力英语阅读理解,讲到的话题就是有关英语的发展话题,毫无疑问,现在的英语已经是世界上使用国家最多的语言,有些国家并没有把英语作为母语,但未来会如何发展呢?英语必须以牺牲其他语言为代价来发展吗?

The fear of Americanization of the planet is more ideological paranoia than reality. There is no doubt that, with globalization, English has become the general language of our time, as was Latin in the Middle Ages, and it wilt continue its ascent, since it is an indispensable instrument for international transactions and communication. But does this mean that English necessarily develops at the expense of the other great languages? Absolutely not. In fact, the opposite is true. The vanishing of borders and an increasingly interdependent world have created incentives for new generations to learn and assimilate other cultures, not merely as a hobby, but also out ofnecessity,because the ability to speak several languages and navigate comfortably in different cultures has become crucial for professional success.

Consider the case of Spanish. Half a century ago, Spanish speakers were an inward-looking community; we projected ourselves in only very limited ways beyond our traditional linguistic confines. Today, Spanish is dynamic and tMving, gaining beachheads or even vast landholdings on all five continents. That there are between 25 and 30 million Spanish speakers in the United States today explains why the two recent U.S. presidential candidates-the Texas governor George W Bush and the vice-president Al Gore-campaigned not only in English, but also in Spanish.

How many millions ofyoung men and women around the globe have responded to the challenges of globalization by learning Japanese, German, Mandarin, Cantonese, Russian or French? Foflunately, this tendency will only increase in the coming years. That is why the best defense of our own cultures and languages is to promote them vigorously throughout this new world, not to persist in the naive pretense of vaccinating them against the menace of English. Those who propose such remedies speak much about culture, but they tend to be ignorant people who mask their true vocation: nationalism. And if there is anything at odds with the universalist propensities of culture, it is the exclusionary vision that nationalist perspectives try to impose on cultural life. The most admirable lesson that cultures teach us is that they need not be protected by bureaucrats or commissars, or confined behind iron bars, or isolated by customs services, in order to remain alive and exuberant;to the contrary, such effort;s would only wither or even trivialize culture. Cultures must live freely,constantlyjousting with different cultures. This renovates and renews them, allowing them to evolve and adapt to the continuous flow oflife. In antiquity, Latin did not kill Greek; to the contrary, the artistic originality and intellectual depth of Hellenic culture permeated Roman civilization and,through it, the poems of Homer and the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle reached the entire world. Globalization will not make local cultures disappear; in a framework of worldwide openness, all that is valuable and worthy of survival in local cultures will find fertile ground in which to bloom.

1. It is assumed in the first paragraph that .

A. languages differ in importance B. language helps understand culture

C. there is one world language D. language reflects culture

2. Which of the following is true of Spanish?

A. It is a widely spoken language in the world.

B. It is going to replace English in the future.

C. It has developed at the expense of other languages.

D. It has become a political language.

3. Which of the following views would a nationalist hold?

A. Language and culture are mutually exclusive.

B. Englih is conducive to the survival of cultures.

C. The best way to preserve culture is to protect it from the influence of other cultures.

D. Cultures should compete with other cukures in order to survive.

4. The phrase "joust with" (Para.3) most probably means .

A. cooperate with B. combine with C. compete with D. consult with

5. Which of the following does the author use to make his point in the last paragraph?

A. Comparison and contrast. B. Definition of terms and classification.

C. Metaphor and simile. D. Rhetorical question and specific example.

试题翻译与详解

1.第一段中,人们假设 。

A.语言在重要性上有所不同 B.语占有助丁了解文化

C.有一种世界语言 D.语言反映文化

【答案】B

【解析】细节题。第一段提到,国界的消失以及一个日益相互依赖的世界已促使新生代去学习和吸收其他文化。随后解释说,因为能讲几种语言、能轻松自在地生活于不同文化的能力对你的事业取得成功已变得十分重要。这说明,人们以为语言可以帮助学习和吸收其他文化。B项与题意符合,A项是本文提到的事实,不是人们的假设;C项是针对该段第二句设置的干扰项,文中并没有说英语将成为世界语言,所以C项不对;D项是误解了该段最后 一句话的意思。

2.下面有关西班牙语的说法哪项正确?

A.它是世界上广泛使用的语言 B.在未来,它将取代英语

C.它以牺牲其他语言为代价而发展起来了 D.它已经成为一种政治语言

【答案】A

【解析】细节题。题干中的“Spanish"出自文章第二段第一句话中,表明本题与第二段有关。第二段提到,以前讲西班牙语的人只是一个秘密群体,如今讲西班牙语的人已经很多了,随后列举数据以及两位美国总统候选人用西班牙语唇枪舌战的例子说明,讲西班牙语的人数众多。这说明,西班牙语已经成为世界上广泛使用的语言oA项与题意符合,B项属于无中生有;C项是针对第一段第三句话设置的干扰项,与文意不符合;D项是针对该段最后一句话设置的干扰项,文中并没有说西班牙语已成为一种政治语言。

3.一个民族主义者将持下面哪种观点?

A.言和文化相互排斥。

B.英语有助于文化的生存。

C.保护文化的最好方法就是保护它免受其他文化的影响。

D.为了生存,文化应该同其他文化竞争。

【答案】C

【解析】细节题。题干中的“nationalist'’出自文章第三段第五句话中,表明本题与第三段有关。第三段介绍了民族主义者的观点——与文化的普遍倾向不一致,也就是与“文化不必受保护、限制或是隔离,以便维持其生机和活力”这种观点不一致,他们认为这些努力只会使文化失去生机。这说明,民族主义者认为应该保护文化,以便维持其生机和活力。C项与题意符合,A项不是民族主义者的观点;B项和D项是人们的普遍观点,与民族主义者的观点相反。

4.短语“joust with”(第三段)最可能的意思是 。

A.与……合作 B.与……联合 c.与……竞争 D.与……协商

【答案】C

【解析】词义题。第三段中间部分提到,文化必须自由生存,必须不断与不同的文化竞争,这会使文化革新、复兴,使它们演化,使它们适应生活的不断变化。根据后面的“allowing themto evolve and adapt to the continuous:flow of life”可知,该短语的意思可能是“与……竞争”。C项与题意符合,A项、B项和D项与文意相反。

5.作者在最后一段应用下面哪种方法来阐明自己的观点?

A.比较与对照 B.术语定义与分类

C.暗喻和明喻 D.反问与特例

【答案】D

【解析】结构题。最后一段首先用了反问句,随后进行说明,最后列举希腊语和拉丁语这两个例子说明文化是可以共存的。这说明,作者应用的是反问与例证。D项为正确答案。A项、B项和C项都不是作者采用的方法。

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